Shahed University

Tear and serum interleukin-8 and serum CX3CL1, CCL2 and CCL5 in sulfur mustard eye-exposed patients

Tooba Ghazanfari | Hassan Ghasemi | Roya Yaraee Shahmirzady | Mahmoud Mahmoudi | Mohammad Ali Javadi | Mohammad Reza Soroush | Soghrat Faghihzadeh | Ali Mohammad Mohseni Majd | Raheleh Shakeri | Mahmoud Babaei | Fatemeh Heidary | Zuhair Mohammad Hassan

Date :  2019/11/04
Publish in :    International Immunopharmacology
DOI : 10.1016/j.intimp.2019.105844
Link : 10.1016/j.intimp.2019.105844
Keywords :CX3CL1/fractalkine; IL-8/CXCL8; MCP-1/CCL2; Ocular injury; RANTES/CCL5; Sulfur mustard

Abstract :
BACKGROUND: The serum and tear levels of four inflammatory chemokines were evaluated in sulfur mustard (SM)-exposed with serious ocular problems. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, 128 SM-exposed patients and 31 healthy control participants participated. Tear and serum levels of chemokines were assessed by ELISA method. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the serum level of IL-8/CXCL8, CX3CL1/fractalkine, CCL2/MCP-1, and CCL5/RANTES between all SM-exposed subjects and control groups. The tear level of IL-8 in the SM-exposed group was lower than the control group, but the difference was not significant. In the SM-exposed group with the abnormalities in tear breakup time (TBUT) test, fundus and pannus formation were significantly higher than SM-exposed patients without these problems. CX3CL1 levels have significantly increased in SM-exposed group with blepharitis, pterygium, and conjunctival pigmentation as compared with the control group. Besides, significantly higher levels of CX3CL1 were observed in SM-exposed group with or without bulbar conjunctival hyperemia and abnormal vessels a well as with fundus abnormality compared to the control group. Only, SM-exposed group with subconjunctival fibrosis had significantly lower levels of CCL5 than SM-exposed group without this problem. CONCLUSION: The higher level of CX3CL1 and consistent levels of IL-8/CXCL8, MCP-1/CCL2, and RANTES/CCL5 in SM-exposed individuals may indicate an anti-inflammatory response against the destructive effects of SM gas. High tear level of IL-8/CXCL8 reflects the severity of ocular surface abnormalities, yet significantly low tear level found in mild SM-exposed subgroup compared with the control group. The lower levels of CX3CL1 and RANTES/CCL5 may represent the different pathophysiology which requires further studies.