Shahed University

Isolation and characterization of a novel GRP78-specific single-chain variable fragment (scFv) using ribosome display method

Seyed Latif Mousavi Gargari | Mehdi Forouzandeh Moghadam | Shima Shabani

Date :  2021/09/27
Publish in :    Medical Oncology
Link :
Keywords :Ribosome display · GRP78 · Monoclonal antibody · Cancer immunotherapy · Single-chain variable fragment

Abstract :
Glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) is a well-characterized endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperon frequently overexpressed at the surface of tumor cells and associated with tumor survival, metastasis, and chemoresistance. Hence, potential GRP78 binders emerge as promising candidates for cancer therapy and diagnosis. We applied ribosome display to isolate a single-chain variable domain (scFv) specific for the C-terminal domain of a recombinant human GRP78 (CGRP). Six female BALB/c mice were immunized and then splenocyte mRNA was extracted. An scFv-ribosome display library was established by joining the amplified VH/Vκ fragments through a 72-bp linker using overlap extension PCR. Then, selection was performed by applying two rounds of eukaryotic ribosome display panning with stepwise decreased amount of CGRP. Ultimately, the selected scFv was characterized using the indirect-ELISA assay, competitive-ELISA assay, Western blotting, Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR), and in-silico analyses. The constructed library had a length of ~ 1100 bp and the high-affinity scFvs were isolated using the outputs of the final panning round. Among 60 positive clones, GSF3 was selected and its expression, purification, and binding capacity was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. GSF3 exhibited an affinity of 13 × 107 M−1 to CGRP as assessed by SPR. Moreover, the in-silico analyses indicated that GSF3 binds the C-terminal domain of GRP78 through key residues engaged in antibody-antigen interactions. We found that ribosome display is a swift and reliable technique for specific and high-affinity scFv isolation. Moreover, our results suggest that GSF3 might be applied as a potential cancer immunotherapeutic and diagnostic tool if this approach is carefully followed by successful preclinical and clinical evaluations to validate the findings for further confirmation.